The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), better known as “drones”, represent an innovative technology that allows digital multispectral aerial photogrammetric detection in civil area.
Despite the long words, the drone is a small, fully automated aircraft, which allows the proximal remote sensing and data acquisition without pilot on board. It’s a flying multifunction camera.
The flight can be remotely controlled in real-time distance from a fixed or mobile station, or follow a pre-programmed flight profile, set through appropriate software. Can sleep on board different kinds of sensors, such as GPS receiver, accelerometers, gyroscopes, ultrasounds, cameras. Their integration allows to automatically run a pre-programmed flight plan on a cartographic base or, if required, to maintain precisely its position for the time necessary.
The GPS positioning system and onboard sensors also allows to oppose the action of the wind, thus improving the stability of the appliance and consequently the quality of the data.
As regards the flight altitude, you can process routes of several kilometers and heights of several hundred meters, with speeds of the order of a few meters per second.
The integration of automated systems, together with the navigation of an experienced pilot, allows for extremely precise flights and it is possible to program in advance the flight, in order to guarantee the correct overlapping of images, crucial to obtain a good photogrammetric survey and to acquire data suitable for texturing mapping of DSM models and three-dimensional terrain models.
The data that can be acquired by aerial drones are:
– video shoot digital camera with the purpose of an: inspection / recognition / monitoring;
– from digital camera images calibrated for surveying, 3D modeling, rendering of artifacts and thematic mapping;
– multispectral images (eg. infrared) for precision agriculture and energy efficiency of buildings (control of heat or energy loss);
– pictures and video commercial, aimed at the promotion of events, open spaces, tourism, culture and entertainment;